Friday, May 22, 2020

How to Read literature - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 686 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Frankenstein Essay Did you like this example? In Thomas C. Fosters How To Read Literature Like a Professor, Foster shows us how to attack or understand text that we read. As we read Mary Shelleys Frankenstein we notice concepts she uses that we learned from How to Read literature. A few concepts Mary Shelley uses is violence, imperfections, and symbols. In Fosters, How to Read Literature Like a Professor, Foster discusses violence in literature and how it usually will mean something else. Violence is personal, intimate, cultural, and societal. Violence is meant to be a symbolic act and to propel characters and actions forward throughout the text. Violent acts that are considered accidents usually do not happen in literature. Foster mentioned how making actions happen, causing plot complications, ending plot complications, and putting other characters under stress are four reasons authors will involve violence in their text. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How to Read literature" essay for you Create order Foster also noted that specific violent acts is from character to character and is always intentional. In Shelleys Frankenstein, the monster created by Victor performed multiple violent acts. One violent act the monster did in the story happens in chapter 23 of Frankenstein. In this chapter Victor had a feeling that something bad was going to happen when the monster arrived. While he was looking for the monster around the house, his wife was killed. Shelley uses violence in this chapter to make actions happen and to cause stress for Victor. Later in the book Victor spends a lot of time searching for the monster, which shows how one violent act led to other actions happening throughout the story. In chapter 21 of Fosters How to Read Literature Like a Professor, Foster discusses how in literature physical marks, imperfections, or deficiencies have a symbolic meaning. Authors make characters with imperfections so they can stand out and be different from the rest of society. Other reasons for physical markings could be to represent a characteristic, to show a mental state, or to describe someones past experience. Each individual marking tells its own story and to point out character differentiation. Further, Shelley depicts the monster to be frightening and to not have any type of emotions. Victors creation was described as having watery eyes, shriveled complexion, and straight black lips. (Shelley, ch. 5) The physical appearance is not the only thing about the monster that is frightening, in the novel the idea of the scientist creating an alliance with a dark unknown monster is what scares the people in their society and the readers. Mary Shelley uses the individual marking or imperfections to show how during the enlightenment everyone relied on science and to make the character or the monster different from everyone else. Foster also mentions the concept of using symbols in literature in his book, How to Read Literature Like a Professor. There is two types of symbols in literature, which are a private symbol and a more straightforward symbol. Symbols in literature can sometimes be very specific to the author. Authors will use symbols repetitively so the reader is able to understand what author means by the symbol by the end of the story. As readers we can start to see and understand all the possible meanings of a symbol in a story. The symbol in Mary Shelleys, Frankenstein, is all the deaths that happened throughout the book. She involves multiple people dying in the book because there was a lot of deaths surrounding her own life. Mary Shelley was very young when she wrote Frankenstein but she was always haunted by the events or deaths that happened throughout her whole life. For example, she was haunted by people like her mother dying after she gave birth to Mary, her husband drowning, and all of her children didnt make it past their childhood but one. In conclusion, the significance of learning these concepts in Thomas C. Fosters How to Read Literature Like a Professor is to be able to recognize concepts like violence, imperfections, and symbols in literature in other books we read. Understanding all the concepts mentioned by Foster helps readers make connections and interpret a two hundred year old novel like Mary Shelleys Frankenstein more easily.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Essay about Physical Education, “Just Do It!” â€NIKE

John F Kennedy once said, â€Å"Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.† He believed that a person who has conditioned their body will exceed when striving towards intellectual achievements. Parents across America have seen the influence that physical exercise can have on students. After school physical education programs, such as sports, not only condition the students to maintain physical health, they also work with teachers to make sure the mind is also being conditioned through learning. Students who participate in school sports are required to maintain their grades to academic standards to be able to participate in the activity. Even†¦show more content†¦There are school district officials, however, argue that physical activity in school is meaningless and it consumes too much of the school budget to support. The recent cuts in school budgets across the nation h ave left some schools, like those in lower class economies, with little or no support for physical education programs (â€Å"Physical education, extracurricular sports suffer under budget strains.†). For example, Rob Manning from the Oregon Public Broadcasting (OPB) stated in an article about physical education budget cuts, that Portland district officials have suggested eliminating physical education in the lower grades as a way to balance the school budget. By removing physical education from schools, there would be a gain of $19 million from the budget (Manning, Rob). Luckily, over 86 percent of Portlanders have opposed the suggestion and advocate that the answer to school budget cuts is not the termination of school activities. Drew Mahalic, the man who leads the Oregon Sports Authority, is a leading advocate in the fight for protecting physical education from budget cuts. He exclaims, â€Å"When you cut physical education, it is deleterious to the kid’s health, t heir academic achievement in school, and interestingly enough, is that it is a social justice issue, in that the kids who are already disadvantaged, are the ones who suffer most (Manning, Rob).† The schools that underprivileged children are attending are not only losing their budgetShow MoreRelatedWhy Is Nike the Biggest Training Shoe Company in the World1222 Words   |  5 Pagesbecome a basic part just about everyone s wardrobes. This is due to both the increasing numbers of people exercising and the trend towards casual apparel. One of the most popular brands in the world is Nike. Competition is strong at all levels within the industry, especially among the leaders. However, Nike has successfully differentiated from these competitors. This essay will concentrate on what makes Nike shoes standing out from the rest. Starting from making running shoes, Nike had branched outRead MoreEthical Issues with Sweatshops1335 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Ethics Jacqueline Newkirk Remember when you were at the mall the last time and saw a pair of Nike shoes that you just couldn’t live without? You had to buy them, for a pricey cost, and just loved them, right? We all have owned a pair or two of Nike shoes in our life. They were the â€Å"cool† shoes to have back when I was in school. The thing that we may not have known is that Nike has been using â€Å"children as young as fifteen years old† (Jennings, 2012) as employees to make these shoes.Read MoreNike s Competitiveness And External Environment1488 Words   |  6 Pagesareas of interest. The political factors for Nike are the possibility of tariffs being imposed by the United States federal government in their overseas operations. According to the world manufacturing map, Nike has factories in 42 countries (Nike, Inc, 2017). Therefore, tariffs, sanctions, or embargos that could be placed because of turmoil in countries such as, Russia, North Korea, or Venezuela; have the potential to be catastrophic for companies like Nike. Consequently, all of their manufacturingRead MoreThe Sweatshop Industry and Child Labour in NICs Essay1426 Words   |  6 PagesThe Sweatshop Industry and Child Labour in NICs This report is aimed at investigating if the two major TNCs Nike and Gap manufacture their products according to their code of vendor conduct. Both companies code of vendor conduct clearly states that no workers are employed under the legal minimum age and sweatshops dont exist in their factories. A sweatshop is a factory where employees are subject to extreme exploitation; they work in dreadful conditions with healthRead MoreChild Labor As A Cultural Norm1604 Words   |  7 Pagesemployment, which disregards the safety of the children by placing them in hazardous environments, deprives children of their childhood, and robs them of their education. As with any other problem, in order for child labor to be reduced and eventually ended, a solution must be implemented. Just as there is a solution to a problem there are also those who do not see child labor as an issue. The most viable solution to help reduce child labor would be for product owners and manufacturers to implement monitoringRead MoreCan Child Labor Be Stopped?1588 Words   |  7 PagesManufacturers that employ children ignore moral and ethical issues that come with this employment, which disregards the safety of the children by placing them in hazardous environments, deprives children of their childhood, and robs them of their education. As with any other problem, in order for child labor to be reduced and eventually ended, a solution must be implemented. The most viable solution to help reduce child labor would be for product owners and manufacturers to implement monitoring, codesRead MoreAre Professional Athletes Overpaid?1215 Words   |  5 Pageswith 8 years of education will make in one year (â€Å"How Many Hours A†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ) (Mlynek, Froats). Are these comparisons fair? Athletes have amazing talents. Throwing a pitch one hundred miles per hour, making a shot from halfcourt, and making a pass eighty yards down a football field is impressive, but, is it worth millions of dollars just for entertaining spectators? Outrageous endorsements and sponsor contracts, comparing salary, education, and time, and the idea of sports over lives, are just a few of theRead MoreFather Figure : A Cold Winter Night At University Lab High School719 Words   |  3 Pageshumbled us. He was excited to have a few more days to prepare. Being an understanding person is what Chetta is known for. Being understanding helps him build relationships. Not just with strangers, but with his players. Building a healthy relationship with your players is key to coaching. It helps encourage them to do better, and relieves heavy amounts of stress off of them. Being understanding helps players know that he is available to help at anytime; on and off the field. He was a father figureRead MoreEssay The Beginning of Global Warming 1288 Words   |  6 Pagesclass factory workers are not fair enough and do not meet a great stable economic standing for them especially for the harsh work conditions, the low wages just does not add up. This would lead to the building of factories within the United States, providing jobs for the unemployed and bring the U.S economy up yet the pollution produced by the factories harm the surrounding villages and earths atmospheres. The money saved could be distributed to â€Å"to education, poverty a lleviation, infrastructure, andRead MoreMarketing Plan Nike3380 Words   |  14 PagesINTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE Sofia MARKETING PLAN Market entry/grow opportunity for Nike in Bulgaria INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT Coursework in MARKETING Student registration No: 20019402 Program: MBA Lecturer: Dr. V. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Northern Mariana Islands and Guam History Free Essays

string(84) " the Manila Galleon trade, which was the exchange of goods between Asia and Mexico\." Guam History: A Review of the Island’s Unique History VincentAnthony V. Borja English 135 Professor Rosemary Harty April 21, 2011 Over the past 10 years, random people would ask me about the history of Guam, and how it became a United States territory. Grew up most of my life on Guam, but never really cared about its history, although, every year we would celebrate its liberation day from the Japanese and celebrate festive holidays significant to the islands history, I never really understood why we celebrated it. We will write a custom essay sample on Northern Mariana Islands and Guam History or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Spanish Era, the American Period, the Japanese occupation played a major influence on the island and its culture today. The island of Guam, Guahan in native Chamorro, is a truly multi-ethnic community that reflects the cultures of its original Chamorro inhabitants as early as 2,000 B. C. , influenced by countless European, American, Asian, Micronesian, and other people who have occupied, visited and immigrated to Guam since the 16th Century. Many question the discovery by the Spaniards, the occupation of the Americans and the Japanese that shaped the island’s history that makes its culture very fascinating. Understanding the islands struggles that have lead to the American status that it eventually became after many centuries of fighting. Guam of today is truly a mixed community with a distinctive culture, the foundation of which is ancient Chamorro heavily influenced by the Spanish occupation and the Catholic Church. Strong American influence is also evident in the celebration of many public holidays, the form of Government and the pride in being U. S. that is displayed by the natives. Guam’s culture has also been influenced and enriched by the Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Micronesian immigrants each group of who have added their unique contributions. According to the 2000 Census of Population and Housing the present population of Guam, is approximately 154,805 whom roughly 37% are Chamorro, 26% Filipino, 11% other Pacific Islander with the remaining 26% primarily Caucasian, Chinese, Korean and Japanese, all of whom bring their cultural heritage and customs and contribute to Guam’s unique culture and appeal. (U. S. Department of Commerce, 2004) SPANISH ERA According to the journals of Antonio Pigafetta, whom was an Italian scholar and traveler form the republic of Venice. Pigafetta travelled with Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and recorded most of Magellan’s travels. Ferdinand Magellan on March 6, 1521, first discovered the island. (Pigafetta, 1995, p. 18) During his stop on the island, the natives canoed out to the ships and stole everything that was not secured or tied down. The weakened sailors had trouble fending off the tall and robust natives until a few shots from the  Trinidad’s big guns frightened them off the ship and they retreated into the surrounding jungle. The purpose of Magellan’s visit was to restock on supplies and find food. After Magellan’s travel throughout the Marianas, it was primarily his experience on Guam that the Marianas was named Li Ladroni, the island of thieves. (Suarez, 1999, p. 133) Although Magellan was considered the first European explorer to step foot on Guam’s beaches, it was known that Guam and the other Mariana islands were formally claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1565 by General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi for Spain. King Phillip II of Spain wanted trade to begin with the Phillipine islands, islands named after him. Legazpi was sent across the pacific from Mexico, which was a colony of Spain in 1564. During Legazpi’s sail across the pacific, King Phillip ordered him to take possession of all land and any island encountered. Additionally, he wanted Legazpi to find a route between Mexico and the Philllipines that would go through the pacific. Legazpi and his fleet reached Guam on January 22, 1565 and docked his ships for four days. After days of waiting, they finally went on shore on January 26, 1565 to claim Guam and posted the Spain flag. (Cunningham ; Beaty, 2001) Legazpi and his men stayed on Guam for eleven days. During this visit, Legazpi was so afraid of upsetting the Chamorro’s that he ordered all crew members not to go on shore without his permission. The Chamorro’s were much friendlier, canoeing out to greet the voyagers with food and supplies, a much different experience the Spanish explorers had remembered during their last Guam visit. Clever and sly, the Chamorro’s were always trying to trade rice for nails. Frequently the natives would fool the voyagers by placing rice in the top of the bag and filling the bottom with rocks and straw. When the men went ashore to fill the kegs with water, an altercation took place, and one of Legazpi’s men was killed. Legazpi was upset and ordered a hundred men to go to the island and punish the Chamorro’s. The result was three Chamorro’s hung and killed; and many houses and canoes burned. Following the incident Legazpi declared anchors to be lifted and the Spaniards journeyed for the Philllipines. (Rogers, 1995, p. 14) Catholocism was the first religion introduced on the island during the 1600’s. The major influence and main support came from one of the main leaders on the island during that time. Chief Quipuha was the maga’lahi or highest-ranking male, in the area of Hagatna when the Spanish landed off its shores in 1668. On June 15, 1668 missionaries led by Spanish Jesuit Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores of Burgos, of Spain, whom landed off the shores of Hagatna. They were greeted and welcomed by Chief Quipuha, the name Ke puha or Quipuha means, â€Å"to uphold†. Chief Quipuha was so welcoming to these missionaries; he even offered a plot of land in Hagatna for the mission. Political Status Education Coordinating Commission, 1995) It was on this offered land where the first Catholic Church in Guam was built and Catholicism was introduced. Chief Quipuha died in 1669, but his legacy left a tremendous impact that allowed the Spanish to continue its legacy for the Manila Galleon trade, which was the exchange of goods between Asia and Mexico. You read "Northern Mari ana Islands and Guam History" in category "Essay examples" (Naval Station Guam) About a century later, In April of 1672, Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores and his Filipino assistant were killed by Chief Mata’ pang of Tumon for baptizing the Chief’s baby girl without the Chief’s consent. (Rogers, 1995, p. 5) It is theorized, that Mata’ pang may have acted out of frustration from being compelled to the harsh rule of a foreign Spanish king. Whereas San Vitores tried to carry out his mission in a peaceful manner, the Spanish military ruthlessly governed the local populace to protect their Galleon routes. Regardless of Mata’ pangs motives, the death of San Vitores lead to an all-out war that nearly resulted in extinction of the Chamorro race. Sources have estimated Chamorro casualties to the fighting and disease reduced the population from 200,000 to roughly 5,000 by 1741, mostly women and children. The Spaniards imported Spanish soldiers and Filipino’s to restock the population, marking the end of the pure Chamorro bloodline. (Rogers, 1995, pp. 41-57) After 1695, Chamorro’s were forced to settle in five villages: Hagatna, Agat, Umatac, Pago, and Fena, were monitored by the priests and military garrison, forced to attend Church daily and to learn Spanish language and customs. In 1740, Chamorro’s of the Northern Marianas Islands, except Rota, were removed from their home islands and exiled to Guam. Mata’ pang himself was killed in a final battle on the island of Rota in 1680. Having been vilified for the incident that sparked the decimation of the pure Chamorro race, the name Mata’ pang has evolved to mean silly. (Donald L. Platt, 2009) During the 18th century, the English pirates who visited Guam to take on supplies and provisions preyed upon the Spanish galleons. Guam was a host to a number of scientists, voyagers, and whalers from Russia, France, and England some of whom provided detailed accounts of the daily life on Guam under Spanish rule. Evidence of Spanish buildings, bridges, churches and forts can still be seen across the island, especially in the southern areas of the island. Spanish cannon still overlooks Hagatna and Umatac bays from Forts Agueda and Soledad, the Plaza de Espana, once the Spanish Governor’s Palace, still stands in central Hagatna, and sunken Spanish galleons still lie under Guam’s crystal clear waters. The architecture and design of structures build long after the Spanish era, such as the bridge in Umatac, which still has distinct Spanish quality. (Donald L. Platt, 2009) AMERICAN PERIOD During the Spanish-American war Guam was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish American war in 1898 and Guam was formally purchased from Spain for $20 million in 1899. At the time of the turnover, the local population of Guam had grown to about 10,000 inhabitants. U. S. President William McKinley issued an executive order placing Guam within the administration of the Department of the Navy. Captain R. P. Leary was appointed the island’s first U. S. Governor. (Rogers, 1995, p. 14) Under Navy administration, Guam experienced many improvements in the areas of agriculture, public health, sanitation, education, land management, taxes, and public works. Orders issued by Captain Leary on August 16, 1899, regulated the importation and sale of intoxicating liquors; regulated the celebration of church and other holidays; prohibited the transfer of land without the consent of the government; prohibited concubine and requir ed that marriage be performed between persons that were cohabiting; prohibited exportation of certain articles in common use among he people; required persons without a trade or regular employment to pant specified commodities and keep certain live stock; regulated the keeping of dogs and other animals running at large; abrogated the Spanish system of taxation and provided a new one; established a public system of nonsectarian education; and required each adult to learn to write his or her own name within a specified time. (Rogers, 1995, p. 119) In 1927, the people of Guam, including schoolchildren who donated a penny each, collected $703. 92 to have a ship’s bell and a commemorative plaque manufactured in Shanghai, China. The bell was presented to the Navy and has served distinctively on each of the three USS Guam Naval vessels. (Palomo, 1999)The U. S. Navy continued to use Guam as a refueling and communication station until 1941, when it fell to invading Japanese forces shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. â€Å"The bell, along with a commemorative bronze plaque, has been returned to Guam after the decommissioning of the USS Guam, an amphibious assault ship (LPH-9), on August 25, 1998 at the Norfolk, Virginia, Naval Base. The USS Guam is the third Navy vessel named after Guam. † (Palomo, 1999) JAPANESE OCCUPATION On December 10, 1941, Guam surrendered to the Japanese South Seas detachment after a valiant defensive struggle by the island’s Insular Force Guard and a limited number of U. S. Marines. Guam became the only populated U. S. soil to be occupied by another country in World War II. Guam was renamed â€Å"Omiya Jima† and for 31 months, the people of Guam were forcibly subjected to intolerable hardships administered by the Japanese military. Although some measure of religious practice and business activities were permitted, atrocities, grenade slaughters and rapes were common. The 29th Division of Japan’s Kwantung Army established concentration camps and approximately 600 Chamorro’s were executed. (Rogers, 1995, pp. 163-181) Some Chamorro’s were beheaded when the Japanese learned of the 3-year humanitarian effort by Chamorro’s to successfully feed and hide U. S. Navy radioman George Tweed, who escaped in the initial invasion. Tweed’s cave is a popular â€Å"boonie stomping† destination on Guam today. (Babuata, 2009) Many landmarks of the Japanese occupation, including gun emplacements and tunnels can still be seen around the island of Guam. LIBERATION AND U. S. TERRITORIAL STATUS Record tonnage of naval bombardment in which thousands of Japanese and Chamorro’s marked the campaign for the liberation of Guam lost their lives and the city of Hagatna was nearly destroyed. American forces landed on July 21, 1944 at Asan and Agat beaches. In honor of the bravery and sacrifices of all those who participated in the Pacific Theater of World War II, including soldiers, sailors and marines of the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, China, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union, the landing area has been designated as the â€Å"War in the Pacific National Historic Park. During the following bitter three week campaign, 7,000 U. S. and 11,000 Japanese lives were lost before Guam was reclaimed and once again under American administration. (Aguon, 2009) Today, July 21st, Guam Liberation Day, is a major Guam holiday. All government offices and most businesses are closed as the island celebrates with daylong fiestas and a parade down Marine Corps drive in Hagatna. Because of its strategic position, Guam was used as a command post for U. S. Western Pacific operations until the War came to an end in 1945. On May 30, 1946, the U. S. Naval Government was re-established. Although concluded over 50 years ago, World War II still exerts a major influence on Guam. Relics and evidence of the War are still evident all across the island and divers can survey wrecks of Japanese, American, German and other ships and airplanes under Guam’s warm clear waters. On January 24, 1972, the last Japanese World War II holdout, Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi, was discovered in the cave in which he had been hiding since his unit was scattered by the advancing Americans in July 1944. Sergeant Yokoi’s cave at Talofofo falls has been preserved as a popular attraction for visitors. (Aguon, 2009) As the Westernmost U. S. soil in the Pacific, Guam today remains a strategic outpost for the U. S. military. In 1949, U. S. President Harry S. Truman signed the Organic Act making Guam an unincorporated territory of the United States with limited self-governing authority and granting American citizenship to the people of Guam. In 1962, security clearance requirement for travel to Guam, which had been in place since World War II, were lifted permitting Guam’s economy to flourish and opening an influx of new residents of diverse nationalities and races such as Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Indian, Pacific Islanders nd Caucasian. (Rogers, 1995) CULTURE The core of Guam culture, the Chamorro, is characterized by a complex social protocol centered upon respect, caring, accepting and helping one another. Inafa’maolek, or interdependence, is a central value in Chamorro culture that depends on a spirit of cooperation. Historian Lawrence Cunningham in 1992 wrote, â€Å"In a Chamorro sense, th e land and its produce belong to everyone. This is the armature, or core, that everything in Chamorro culture revolves around. It is a powerful concern for mutuality rather than individualism and private property rights. The culture is visibly manifested in the kissing of the hands of elders, passing of legends, music, dance, chants, courtship rituals, handicrafts, burial rituals, preparation of herbal medicines, and requesting forgiveness from spiritual ancestors when entering a jungle. Glimpses of Guam culture are evident in local legends and folklore such as the taotaomona (ancient spirits), doomed lovers leaping to their death off Two Lover’s Point (Puntan Dos Amentes), and Sirena, a beautiful young girl who became a mermaid. Guam Society and Culture Complete Report, 2010) The Spanish occupation was based on conquest and conversion to â€Å"save the heathen souls†, implemented by force, which nearly resulted in the total extermination of the pure Chamorro race. How ever, the Spanish failed to recognize that the Chamorro culture was matrilineal and largely ignored the influence of the Chamorro women, which likely accounts for the fact that the Chamorro culture has endured to this day. The greatest influence of the Spanish over Guam’s culture was through the Catholic Church, which has, since the 17th century, been the center of village activity. Today, every village has its patron saint whose feast day is celebrated with an elaborate fiesta, to which the entire island is invited. These fiestas, whereupon by duty, extended families contribute food and work to cook for the village guests remain a key attribute of the culture of Guam till’ this day. Chamorro society emphasizes respect for the elderly. The practice of  manngingi (â€Å"to smell†) entails sniffing the right hand of an elderly person to express one’s deep regard. Before colonial rule, Chamorro’s recognized the power and authority of clan elders. Informal positions of authority were granted to elders who commanded the respect of their clan members. Elders could pool the labor and material resources of their clans in times of need. (Guam Society and Culture Complete Report, 2010) Today thousands of tourist visit the island to experience a blend of Spanish, Micronesian, Asian and western influences that have inhabited Guam for the past 300 years. The experience of the island’s history and living traditions when you visit historic sites or by sampling some of the island’s delicious food. In conclusion, because Guam is the because island in the pacific, and a strategic point in the pacific, it is a valuable territory that will always be secured by America and very much appreciated. Although, the natives appreciate the Americas presence and Guam’s current political status on the island, they are still fighting for a lot of the original land to be returned to original landowners. The natives endured many struggles from Spain and Japan in order for the island to be what it is today. The diverse influence that started from the Spanish era, the Japanese occupation, and then the liberation from the Americans is what makes the Chamorro culture very unique. The new generation is fighting to preserve what is left of the island’s history, and many organizations are working to promote the culture through song and music. References Aguon, Katherine, PhD and Palomo, Tony. WWII: From Occupation to Liberation, referenced April 12, 2011, 2009 Guampedia, URL: http://guampedia. com/wwii-from-occupation-to-liberation/ Babauta, Leo. George Tweed, referenced April 11, 2011, 2009 Guampedia, URL: http://guampedia. om/george-tweed/ Ballendorf, Dirk Foster, Sophie. Guam. (2011). In Encyclop? dia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/247691/Guam Coomans, Fr. Peter. (1997). History of the Mission in the Mariana Islands: 1667 –  Ã‚  1673. Occasional Historical Papers Series No. 4. Translated and edited by Rodrigue Levesque. Saipan, CM:  Ã‚  Division of Historic Preservation Cunningham, Lawrence J. ; Beaty, Janice J. 2001 A History of Guam. Hagatna, GU; Bess Press Guam Society and Culture Complete Report. World Trade Press Date Published: 2010 LC Call Number: DU647 ISBN: 9781607804727 Naval Station Guam. Chief Quipuha (Ke puha) Statue. Retrieved April 09,2011 from http://ns. gov. gu/quipua. html Palomo, Antonio. The Guam Bell. Referenced April 14, 2011. 1999 Guam. org, URL: http://guam. org. gu/guambell/ Rogers, Robert F. (1995). Destiny’s Landfall: A History of Guam. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press. Under the Organic Act 1950-1970 224-232 Smith, J. (2004). Martin Luther. In L. McDonald (ed. ), Encyclopedia of science and religion. Babson Press. Retrieved November 20, 2003, from http://www. scireligion. com/ml Suarez, Thomas (1999). Early Mapping of Southeast Asia. Singapore; Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. How to cite Northern Mariana Islands and Guam History, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

William Blakes Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience Essay Example For Students

William Blakes Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience Essay Trace how Flakes thought develops from his poem The Lamb and The Tiger together- l have no name: I am but two days old. What shall I call thee? l happy am, Joy is my name. Sweet Joy befall thee! The good character as well as the bad abstractions such as virtues and vices is framed up in symbols to elaborate their suggestiveness and implications. Flakes cosmology is too large and complex to be given in brief. His symbols help to express his visions which may be obscure to a common reader. Blake says: Allegory is addressed to the intellectual powers, while it is altogether hidden from the corporeal. Understanding is my definition of the Most Sublime Poetry. From this it is clear that in his view poetry is concerned with something else than the phenomenal world and that the only meaner of expressing it is through what he calls allegory. For Blake allegory is a system of symbols which presents events in a spiritual world. The modest Rose puts forth a thorn, The humble Sheep a threatening horn; White the Lily white shall in love delight, Nor a thorn nor a threat stain her beauty bright. Blake imagined himself under spiritual influences. He saw various forms and heard he voices of angels, fairies, kings of the past and even God; the past and future were before him and he heard in imagination, even the awful voice which called on Adam amongst the trees of the garden. In this kind of dreaming abstraction, he lived much of his life; all his s works are stamped with it. We will write a custom essay on William Blakes Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Though this visionary aspect explains much of the mysticism and obscurity of his work, it is also the element that makes his poems singular in loveliness and beauty. It is amazing that he could thus, month after month and year after year, lay down his engraver after it had earned him his lily wages, and retire from s the battle, to his imagination where he could experience scenes of more than-earthly splendor and creatures pure as unfasten dew. Like Sweeteners, Blake narrates things unheard and unseen; more purely a mystic than Sweeteners, he does not condescend to dialectics and scholastic divinity. Those who fancy that a dozen stony syllogisms seal up the perennial fountain of our deepest questions, will affirm that Flakes belief was an illusion, constant and self-consistent and harmonious with the world throughout the whole of a mans life, cannot differ from much reality. However, it is also important to note hat he was unlike common atheists. Selfish Father of Men! Cruel, Jealous, selfish Fear! Can delight, Chained in night, The virgins of youth and morning bear? In the clash of creeds, it is always a comfort to remember that sects with their sectaries, orthodox or otherwise, could not intersect all, if they were not in the same plane. We find in Flakes poetry many of the elements characterizing Romantic poetry. The world of imagination is the world of Eternity, says Blake. In his championship of liberty, his mysticism, naturalism, idealization of childhood, and simplicity Blake could be called a precursor of Romantic poetry in nineteenth century England. Now enjoy. Dip him in the river who loves water.. The busy bee has no time for sorrow.. The most sublime act is to set another before you The cistern contains: the fountain overflow. In explaining these lines we waver in interpreting the drops of tears that water the heaven as the outcome of the rage of the defeated rebelling angels or as tears of Eric. If this wrath is one of the two aspects of God, the tigers cruelty and wildness is only superficially fearful. It can otherwise be construed as a prophetic rage. But after, all wrath and mercy unite at the same point where the ultimate reality of God is felt. There are two meaner for the achievement of the goal, the first being through the innocence of the lamb and other being through the experience of the tiger. The close of the poem gives us the clue: the daring of the creator whether God or man is the cleansing wrath of the tiger. Blake is first and foremost a poet of visions and mysticism. But of, his visions are not confined to a narrow streamline of thought about futurity alone; they take the present into consideration and unfold those aspects of contemporary society detrimental to free growth of the mental powers of man. He ridicules the artificial ethos of religion that professes a complete negation of mans sensual life and vehemently argues for a more complete life which combines the senses and the spirit. He probes beneath the surface of things and exposes the roots of social vices, the hidden sores and scars of a tradition-bound society. Can a mother sit and hear An infant groan, and infant fear? No, no! Ever can it be! Never, never can it be! Flakes maxim that the human soul is made of contrary elements can be applied here also. Indistinct and imagination or the beastly and divine nature of man is necessary for a fuller life of the soul and for its progress. It is a grievous mistake to sanctify the lamb and turn an eye of defiance towards the tiger. Blake oppo ses such a view and gives equal prominence to sense and soul, the wild and meek aspects of human beings. Does spring hide its Joy When buds and blossoms grow? What holds our attention is not merely the brutes beauty but the mystery and repose behind its creation. In The Lamb the poet visualizes the holiness of the lamb and child and unifies them with Jesus Christ. It is obvious that the link that connects these figures is innocence. The harmlessness of the lamb and the purity of the heart of a child are nothing but the manifestation of heart nor does he act premeditatedly. The air of innocence is clearly visible on the face of all the three of them. How sweet is the Shepherds sweet lot! From the morn to the evening he strays; He shall follow his sheep all the day, And his tongue shall be filled with praise. More than this element of innocence there is another thread of connection between the lamb and Christ. Christ refers to himself as the Lamb of God: The lamb of God that take away the sin of the world. In the Bible Christ is referred to both as a lamb and as a shepherd. In this aspect the lamb has a religious significance too. (The whole universe is a symbol, and God is the essence behind. ? Swami Vegetarian ?) The Tiger displays the poets excellence in craftsmanship and descriptive skill. In the forest of experience Blake finds the bright- eyed tiger which appears to involve all the cosmic forces. The tiger has made its appearances in the Prophetic books of Blake. The poets reliance in the cosmic and preternatural forces is increasingly exemplified and asserted when he describes the creation and the creator of the tiger. The creator is a supernatural being and not necessarily the Christian God. The creation, according to another elucidation takes place in an extraordinary cosmic commotion. When the constellations turn round in their course there is a move from light to darkness. The pattern and method of asking questions here are quite different from those employed in The Lamb. In The Tiger the questions are put in a terrified and awe-inspired tone. It is also held that The Tiger deals with the colossal problem of evil, but in Blake evil does not exist as an abstract quality. Instead, the evil is embodied in the wrath of God. Christ, like all other Gods, has a dual duty. He punishes the sinners and offenders and loves the followers. Thus Christ or God becomes the God of both love and unkindness. The fire is a popular symbol of wrath. Milton and Spencer have described wrath as fire, but we are not to misapprehend Flakes use of wrath as one of the deadly sins by the miracle and morality plays. Blake finds virtue in wrath and what he describes in the righteous indignation or the wrath of a pious soul. In addition to this, if we also construe the symbolic meaning of the forest, then we can substantiate the meaning of the lines. Tiger Tiger burning bright In the forests of the night. The poet is struck with surprise and awe to behold the wild animals majestic elegance and grandeur. Its symmetry is fearful and the glow of its eyes is unearthly. When the process of creation is over, a terrible beauty is born. The strength of the animal and its moves/ are its peculiar features. The tiger beyond its superficial tatty is a prototype of God whose harsher aspect is present n the wildness of the creature. It is a contrast and counterpart to the innocence of the lamb. The poet wonders: Did he who made the Lamb make thee? In the poem The Tiger a description of the process of creation is given, but no clarification is given about who the creator is. In the first stanza the creator is described as having wings by which he may have reached the skies to bring the fire for the luster of the wild beast. The creation of the tiger is conveyed in words and phrases which, though meaningful in their totality, do not yield any explicit elucidation of the creator. We sense the strong shoulders thrusting forward in the process of forging the body of the carnivore. The dexterity of the strokes is further conveyed in the dread hand which is gifted with unprecedented craftsmanship. If the dread feet and dread hand are applied to those of the busily engaged creator we can elicit the fact that those limbs are busy in working diligently. At the moment of achieving the perfection of his sublime creation the poem grows tense, the questions are broken in midway and the speakers hindered gasps let out incomplete harass of exclamation. The star floor. The watery shore. Is given thee till the break of day. In the world of innocence even the meanest creature such as a lamb (which is low only in the eyes of human beings) is treated as having unbound divinity. Here is an exclusive unification of the three characters- Christ, child and the Lamb who constitute the Christian concept of Trinity in the world of innocence. Flakes concept of God is closely aligned to his mysticism. .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .postImageUrl , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:hover , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:visited , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:active { border:0!important; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:active , .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75 .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubaff4aa06f47250e3242ebf6ad396c75:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Divorce A Life Changing Experience EssayHe conceives of God as the very epitome of characteristics which man is capable of developing. If he nurtures these qualities, an can attain godliness-it merely depends on what set of qualities a man develops. A child asks a lamb if it knows its merciful creator, its feeder or the giver of its delightful and coos clothing of fleece. He also asks the lamb whether it knows who gave it its tender voice that fills the valleys with pleasant Joy and music. Quite childlike, the lines Little lamb who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? are repeated, presumable with wonder in the eyes of the child. The speaker does not wait for any answ er. He tells the lamb that its creator is one who is called after the name of the lamb itself. He is one who calls Himself a lamb. He is meek and mild and came on earth as a little child. The poem comes to have a meaningful pause at this juncture. The questions are asked, answers done and the child (or the poet) turns to conclude the lines in a wise hymnal vein or spiritual implication. He says: l a child, and thou a lamb, We are called by His name: Blake intends to suggest that the great purpose of wrath is to consume error, to annihilate those stubborn beliefs which cannot be removed by the tame horses of instruction. It is typical of Blake to ask questions when he is overpowered by wonder ND amazement and it is effective especially in the case of this poem, where it results in an intense improvisation. The phrase fearful symmetry- whatever is possible in symbolic suggestions- is clearly the initial puzzle the symmetry implies an ordering hand or intelligence, the fearful throws doubt about the benevolence of the creator. The forest of the night is the darkness out of which the tiger looms brilliant by contrast: They also embody the doubt or confusion that surrounds the origins of the tiger. In the case of the lamb the creator is meek and he is mild:He became a little hill. In the case of the tiger creator is again like what he creates. The form that must be supplied Him is now that of the Promethean Smith working violently at the forge. The tiger is an image of the Creator: its dreaded terror must be His. In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thin eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? There is scarcely any poem in Songs of Innocence and of Experience which does not have a symbolic or allegorical or allusive implication. Though these poems are rendered in the simplest possible poems is somewhat scriptural- simple and rebound at the same time. The Biblical allusions add prodigious significance to his poems when foe example, we read the The Shepherd it commemorates Christ as the Good Shepherd and reminds us that the parables are clad in pastoral elements. Without reference to the Bible the poem, The Shepherd is meaningless and insignificant. Furthermore, Blake makes use of Biblical phrases too, as we see in the poem The Lamb. Gave thee life, and bid thee feed, By the stream and oer the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing, woolly, bright: Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice? In Songs of Innocence and of Experience, Flakes symbols are not as obscure or abstruse as we find them in his other poems. In his later poems (Prophetic Books) they are rather incomprehensible. The principal symbols used by Blake have been classified by critics as innocence symbols. Many of these, of course, overlap, and among themselves weave richness into Flakes poetry. Then come home, my children, the sun is gone down, And the dews of night arise In the first, the word dews evokes an image of harmlessness but in the second context it evokes a feeling of chill and damp. In the first there is a feeling that the eight will pass, but in the second poem the word dew assumes further ramifications of meaning. It implies materialism, the philosophy of experience, the indifference to spiritual truth. Knowledge of these symbolic meanings enriches our understanding of the poem. Blake gives his own interpretation to traditional symbols. The rose traditionally associated with love and modesty assumes the aura of sicknesses and disease in Blake for he considered love to be free and honest and open in order to be good. The lilys purity assumes added depth in Flakes poetry, not because it is chaste but because it feels honestly. The sun flowers movement with the sun has deep meaning: on the one hand it represents a search for spirituality: on the other, it expresses regret for being attached to the ground. The simple vocabulary and movement of Flakes verse should not lull us into a feeling that the thought too is childish. Indeed there is a complex thread of syllogism in his poetry that gives multiple layers of meaning to his words. Sometimes this syllogism even lends obscurity to his poems because it evolves out of Flakes own system of symbols. The manner in a particular mood is a remarkable illustrated in the Nurses Songs in Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience occur in both poems: yet the feelings evoked because of the accompanying words are in sharp contrast. To this day they dwell In a lonely dell. Nor fear the wolfish howl Nor the lions growl. The world of Experience welcomes a child of sorrow, who rather than being a fiend himself is also born into a monstrous world of totems and taboos. Strange to notice, it is not actually upon the growing boy that the shadows of prison house close; on the other hand, the shadows spread on the infant at the moment of birth itself. Predictably enough, there is no scope of a heaven lying about its infancy. Its struggle begins from the very moment of its bi rth, it is choked from the very start of its life and it finds its only rest on its mothers breast. As a contrast to Infant Joy here the child is not a Joy but a fiend and neither its mother nor the father, though it is not explicit from Flakes poem, accords a warm s welcome to him. The child hides behind the cloud. The speaker is evidently the child himself who laments against life. But to go to school in a summer morn, Oh! It drives all Joy away Under a cruel eye outworn The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay. Admittedly, the poem brings out Flakes ideas on love and hints at his well-known belief that sex is not sinful. For Blake nakedness is a symbol of pure innocence and he lauds uninhabited love. The Golden Age is that in which the people have love for their fellowmen and mingle with one another freely. In the Golden Age love is not a crime but a grace and beauty signaling unbridled innocence, but in the present age the most tender sentiments are frozen by the trembling fear coming from the cruel eyes of experience. In every cry of every Man In every Infants cry of fear In every voice, in every ban The mind-forged manacles I hear. Flakes vision of man in Songs of Experience, especially with reference to A Divine Image can be summed up as, The human dress is forge iron The human form is a fiery forge, The human face a furnace sealed, The human heart its hungry gorge. The poem A Divine Image is a contrast to The Divine Image in its very title. In The Divine Image, the definite article The shows the real, one and only Divine Image. In A Divine Image the indefinite article A points at a particular d ivine image which has a unique growth. The contrast is also visible in the two stanzas of these two poems. For Mercy has a human heart, Pity a human face, And Love the human form divine. Love, Mercy, Pity, Peace Can be seen as a stark contrast to the lines of A Divine Image that run as: Cruelty has a human heart And Jealousy a human face; Terror the human form divine And Secrecy the human dress. This is truly terrifying. His soul (the human form) is burning with frightfulness within the iron body of secrecy (the condition of deceit; his face is a furnace sealed up wherein Jealousy rages; his heart is recklessly cruel. The imagery is similar to that of The Tiger, but where the Tiger had broken all bounds as a symbol of regeneration, man is here imprisoned in a dress of an iron suit, of his own forging; and all his energies burn within it, consuming him. For I dance, And strength and breadth, And the want Of thought is death; Blake is not merely a revolutionary thinker on mans physical or corporeal freedom; he is also one who broods over the spiritual freedom or spiritual salvation of mankind. The former point, showing Blake as a humanitarian, cans be well understood from poems such as The Chimney-sweeper, Holy Thursday and A little Girl Lost. In all these cases Flakes fury makes him lash out at the hypocrisy of man and the society that enslaves children to utter lifelessness. In Holy Thursday Flakes sympathetic and compassionate heart shares the agony of the children and his pent up feelings are let out through an ironical comment: Beneath them sit the aged men wise guardians of the poor, Then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door. William Blake is considered a precursor of Romantic Movement in English Literature. Romanticism laid considerable stress on the elements of imagination, tauter worship, humanitarianism, liberty, mysticism and symbolism. It differed from the outlook expounded by the preceding age of Neo classicism which promoted the notion of reason, balance and logic with regard to prose and poetry. The Romantic creed of poetry rests on recording the simple emotions of humanity in a simple diction. Recollections of childhood (nostalgia) are also a common subject of Romanticism. When the voice of children are heard on the green And whisperings are in the dale, The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind, My face turns green and pale. But of, the flood of feelings gains more fury in the poem of the same title in Songs of Experience: Is this a holy thing to see In a rich and fruitful land. Babes reduced to misery, Fed with cold and usurious hand? With vehemence Blake argues for the freedom of human energy too. He deplores any religion that denies sexual and emotional life of man. Virility and vigor are divine and its free play should never be hindered. He is called by thy name, For he calls Himself a Lamb. He is meek, and He is mild; He became a little child. Many of Flakes poems celebrate the divinity and innocence of not merely the child UT also the least harmless of creatures on earth, namely the lamb. The child asks the lamb if it knows who has created out. The child does not wait but answers his questions himself. He does so, we feel, not because the lamb cannot communicate, but because the child is so enthusiastic and eager to mention the creator and his virtues. .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .postImageUrl , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:hover , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:visited , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:active { border:0!important; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:active , .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7040f1d79b5de8f39c68687db8a562cd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Child company experience is one of the sweetest experience EssayHe refers to the meekness of Christ, his glorious infancy as well as his reference to himself as a lamb. He concludes with a reference to his own and the lambs affinity to God and thus establishes their oneness. Qualities of simplicity, innocence and divinity are extended even to the world of animals and the innocent creatures like the lamb are raised from their level of lowness in the human eye. Both the child and Christ are unified with the lamb and the three forms the Trinity on earth. Tiger! Tiger! Burning bright In the forest of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? In The Shepherd the Shepherd is depicted as enjoying vast freedom, and his fortune is praised. He is so fortunate that he can wander about in carefree way wherever he chooses and sing in praise of God. Not only is he always near his lambs, listening to heir innocent cries, bleats and answering bleats ,but he is never exposed to the world of Experience where he may be startled by roars of cruelty and fierceness. This is a simple pastoral poem in which liberty and freedom are praised. We are again brought to realize the affinity of lamb and innocence. Frowning, frowning night, Oer this desert bright Let the moon arise, While I close my eyes. The pastoral convention, which represents the occupations of shepherds in an idealized way, against an idealized country background had to face severe criticism in the eighteenth century because of its unreality. It was held that men and women were neither so Joyful nor carefree, nor so innocent, as they were represented; but according to Blake, young c hildren do have these qualities, they live in a golden world of their own. This convention is used by Blake to give us an insight into childhood, and one state of human soul. In the poem, the poet tells us about the valley along which he goes piping and about his sudden meeting with a child. The child bids him pipe a song about a lamb- another pastoral element. The pipe is a conventional pastoral musical organ on which the shepherds play melodiously as the sheep graze. It is also worth nothing that when the child appeals to him to write down the song, the poet says And I plucked a hollow reed, And I made a rural pen And I stained the water clear, And I wrote my happy songs Every child may Joy to hear. The phrase reed, rural pen and Water clear contributes much to the elements of pastorals or rustic innocence. In the so-called world of experience, callousness, tyranny and insincerity await the blithe new-comer and subject him to an entire transformation. The child -turned-youth experiences a curb on his spontaneous instincts, by the repelling codes of social moralities and etiquette. There is hypocrisy in full swing and there is cruelty. In this unsanitary forge, he is reshaped and bestowed with an altered outlook. He is no more the rollicking child. His fertile imagination yields to the aged atrophied intellect and mature reason. He is in fact fallen or lapsed- fallen from his primordial abode of life. What the hammer? What the chain? The two diverse natures- Innocence and Experience are essential for the ultimate salvation of his soul. From experience man moves to a world of higher innocence. Blake seems to argue that Joy and peace, which man had experienced in his holding, can have solid foundations only if man has experienced and overcome the impediments and unpleasant realities which day to-day life presents. That is to say, to attain a higher innocence man must be tested by suffering and misery, physical as well as emotional; he must go through the actual experience of life. Through the state of childhood innocence is charming; it is not prefect and cannot last long. For spiritual elevation, lessons from both experience and innocence are essential. And it bears the fruit of Deceit, Ruddy and sweet to eat: And the raven his nest has made In its thickest shade. Flakes The Tiger blends child-like innocence with adult wisdom. The child-like innocence is revealed in the volley of questions and exclamations about the fearful symmetry of the tigers body and the reactions of the stars and God to the tigers creation. Like the innocent child the poet wonders to know who framed the tigers body, fearful but well-proportioned: What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? The following volley of questions bears the stamp of child-like innocence: Shades of the prison-house begin to close Upon the growing boy. Like a child not contaminated by the evils of experience the poet is curious to know what instruments were used to frame the tigers fearful symmetry. With the innocence of the child the poet thinks that the angels were so amazed to see the fearful tiger created that they threw down their spears and wept. He also wonders if God smiled with satisfaction to see his new creation (I. E. The tiger) the wondering that becomes a child. Uniform spring and your day are wasted in play, And your winter and night in disguise. With this child-like innocence is blended adult wisdom. The Tiger expresses the sadism (I. . Experience) that comes of age that becomes a man who has gone through his life. The wisdom sought to be conveyed is as follows. Man passes from innocence to experience. And for experience man has to pay a bitter price not merely in such unimportant things as comfort and peace of mind, but in the highest spiritual values. Experience debases and perverts noble desire. It destroys the state of childlike innocence and puts destructive forces in its place. It breaks the free life of imagination and substitutes a dark, cold, imprisoning fear, and the result is a deadly low to blithe human spirit. The fear and denial of life which come with experience breed hypocrisy which is as grave a sin as cruelty. To destroy these forces of experiences the benign creator assumes the role of a malignant creator. In the scheme of things the tiger is as much a necessity as the lamb. So the God who created the lamb also created tiger. In other words, is not only a God of mercy, but also a God of wrath, the creator of Satan and social and political cataclysms. Flakes conception of God here betrays a striking similarity with the Hondo hydrological Avatar theory. Round the laps of their mothers Many sisters and brothers, Like birds in their nest, Are ready for rest; And sport no more seen On the darkening Green. It is indispensable that the boy who enjoyed full freedom and liberty in innocence ought to pass into experience. This is because the design of human life gives prominence to the contrariety of human nature without which there is no progression. A complete life on earth meaner the life of innocence and experience. Without experience or innocence the life cycle is incomplete and imperfect. The memos of Songs of Innocence and of Experience are based on this viewpoint of contrariety. Why of the sheep do you not learn peace Because I dont want you to shear my fleece. The Tiger is typically representative of the most characteristic features of experience which in the poetic context of Blake involves deep meaning. From this powerful symbol we construe that Blake was a devotee of energy which, for him, was an aspect of true divinity. In this poem the poets irrepressible curiosity at the extraordinarily exquisite creation of God finds its vent in small broken questions. After wondering at the symmetry of its body and stripes, the luster of its eyes, the strong muscles, elegant paws and its powerful strides, the poet turns to the reaction of the creator when he beholds his own creation. The poet says that God may have smiled at the surrender of the rebelling angels at his own master craftsmanship in the creation of the tiger. The stars are the rebellious angels under Satan. When they failed to defeat God and were beaten they threw down their spears as in surrender and moaned for their defeat. It is after this event that God started creating inhabitants for the earth. So, at the time of the defeat of the rebelling angels, God might have Just finished the creation of the awesome tiger and smiled on his hidden purpose behind all his acts. Because I was happy upon the heath, And smiled among the winters snow, They clothed me in the clothed of death, And taught me to sing the notes of woe. The Lamb is the most significant poem in the section of Innocence not merely because it propounds the idea of innocence in the simplest way, but also because here we notice the poet extending the world of innocence even to the animals that re insignificant and base in the human eye. In this poem we see a child patting a lamb and asking if it knows who the giver of its life and brad is. He asks it whether it knows who has given it the silken fleece immaculate white and thin voice of its bleat. The child himself answers his questions. He defines the Almighty God as who is known after the name of his lamb who is meek and gentle. Since God descended to the earth as infant Jesus he is also called a child. The child, lamb and God are all brought to unite to form a single divine entity. The essence of the poem lies in these

Friday, March 20, 2020

Juvenile Justices

Juvenile Justices Introduction Over the last decade, child abuse and neglect has been on the increase. This fact comes with its challenges and right now juvenile justice system is facing challenges and some unique issues that if not well addressed would plunge this system into crisis in future. It is unfortunate that, this system has not undergone restructuring to accommodate changing trends in society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Juvenile Justices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Laws have not been reviewed to address the ever-changing societal trends in justice matters. Ignoring the facts does not change them, and whether the juvenile justice system acknowledges it or not; there are numerous challenges and unique issues facing the juvenile justice system, in the 21st century regarding the increasing numbers of child abuse and neglect. Increasing Child Abuse and Neglect As aforementioned, child abuse and neglect has been on the i ncrease over the last decade. According to Nation Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) (2007), â€Å"Child abuse reports have maintained a steady growth for the past ten years, with the total number of reports nationwide increasing by 45% since 1997† (p. 5). This depicts how grave the issue of child abuse and neglect is. According to National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research (2000), the year 1999 was the climax with 3,244,000 reports of child abuse and neglect reaching the Child Protective Service (CPS). Neglect is the prominent form of child maltreatment causing over 43% of child fatalities in a year. These statistics are alarming and they pose great challenge to juvenile justice system. In 2001, the Third National Incidence Study (NIS-3) compiled results on child abuse in 25 states showing that, â€Å"62% involved neglect, 25% physical abuse, 7% sexual abuse, 3% emotional maltreatment and 4% other.   For substantiated cases, 31 states gave the fol lowing breakdowns: 60% neglect, 23% physical, 9% sexual, 4% emotional maltreatment and 5% other† (Reid, 2001, p. 6). These figures, compared to say figures of twenty years ago are very different. Most recent results are more revealing. According to Lung and Daro (2009), â€Å"information from 34 states representing 67.3% of the U.S. population under the age of 18, an estimated 1,215 child maltreatment deaths were confirmed by child protective service (CPS) agencies in 2008† (12). Interestingly, these statistics show deaths only. Logically, not all the abused and neglected children die; therefore, the numbers of the abuse and neglect cases has to be higher than the deaths. Moreover, these statistics represent only the reported cases, meaning that the actual number of cases is higher than the documented ones. Therefore, extrapolating these statistics to cover all cases of abuse and neglect and including the unreported cases, child abuse, and neglect has up surged in the r ecent past. What does this mean to the juvenile justice system?Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Challenges in Juvenile Justice System The fact that more children are being abused and neglected means that more children will end up in criminal practices. According to National Child Abuse (2010), â€Å"Children who experience child abuse neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile, 28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.† This is the nightmare facing the juvenile justice system. Gelles (2006), notes that, increase in child abuse and neglect means increase in criminal practices amongst these children (38). The greatest question remains; is the juvenile justice system prepared to address the increasing number of juvenile crimes cases? As aforementioned, there are numerous challenges facing this system some of which are unique as exposited next. To understand the challenges facing the juvenile justice system in the 21st Century, it is good to know the structures of this system. This system is not meant to handle violent crimes. Moreover, young people below the age of 16 are not supposed to be arraigned in adult courts. Now, this is the stalemate; young people are becoming violent criminals, they are not supposed to be arraigned in adults courts and on the other side, the juvenile justice system does not handle violent crimes. This stalemate does not annul the fact that more young people are becoming violent criminals due to child neglect and abuse. This challenge is unique in its own. The fact is, the justice juvenile system is overwhelmed, and not unless laws are reviewed to accommodate these challenges, the future of this system is doomed to failure. There are unique issues facing the system juvenile system. According to Colon Willoughby, a Wake County District Attorney, â€Å"because the system was meant for petty crimes – such as shoplifting, – it is shrouded in secrecy to protect juvenile offenders† (Lamb, 2009, p. 6). This is another unique issue. This system requires that juvenile case files be kept private to enable these youngsters to start afresh in life as adults. Unfortunately, the trends have changed. These juveniles are no longer interested in petty crimes like shoplifting; no, they are involved in capital crimes; and what is the juvenile justice system doing about it, nothing. The future of this system is bleak; no ray of hope is coming through; not even the administration can do much because law has to be followed. To cap the challenges facing the juvenile system, Colon Willoughby says, â€Å"I think this is a dirty little secret in our court system. We have violent juveniles out there; we are not able to deal with them, and we do not even know who they are† (Lamb, 2009, p. 6). This is true; there are many violent juvenil e ‘criminals’ terrorizing innocent people out there; unfortunately, current laws seem to protect them. As aforementioned, trends have changed and contemporary society is grappling with issues that seemed alien in early 19th century.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Juvenile Justices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unfortunately, structures have not changed with changing times and just like the dinosaurs, the juvenile justice system may soon be distinct if it cannot cope with change. The greatest future challenge facing this system is that of structural organization. Willoughby posits that, â€Å"Prosecutors and judges in the adult court system have access to juveniles felony records, but prosecutors need a court order to review them. Moreover, it can be time consuming pulling those files because there is centralized statewide system to manage them†¦it is at the discretion of the presiding judge wh ether to allow them in open court† (Lamb, 2009, p. 6). This statement highlights two key issues viz. organizational and structural challenges. The fact that the discretion on whether to arraign a juvenile in open court lies in hands of the presiding judges indicates incompetence of juvenile justice system. Additionally, Willoughby poses the issue of time consumption in retrieving criminal records. These two areas pose the greatest future challenges to juvenile justice system given the upsurge in juvenile crime catalyzed by child abuse and neglect. Conclusion The juvenile justice system is facing numerous challenges coupled with some unique issues that seem insurmountable if drastic measures are not taken in the wake of increasing juvenile crimes emanating from up surging child abuse and neglect. Over the last ten year, child abuse and neglect has been on the rise and this translates into increase in juvenile crime. Moreover, trends in juvenile crimes are changing by the day an d more juveniles are engaging in capital crimes. Unfortunately, the structure and organization of the juvenile justice system does not offer dynamic options of dealing with these changing trends. The justice juvenile system was meant to address petty crimes, which were prevalent amongst youth in those times. Under the current law, a juvenile can only be arraigned in open court after approval by a presiding judge. However, given the increasing number of juvenile crimes, the future of this system is bleak. Reference List Gelles, R. (2006). Child Maltreatment and Foster Care. Gender Issues, 23(4): 36-47 Lamb, A. (2009). Juvenile Justice System Faces Challenges. WRAL, A3.Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lung, C., Daro, D. (2009) Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 2005 Annual Fifty State Survey. National Committee to Prevent  Child Abuse, 6(1): 12-18. National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research. (2000). Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities. The Results of the 1999 Annual Fifty State Survey. National Child Abuse. (2010). Child Abuse in America. Web. Nation Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. (2007). 2006 Annual Fifty State Survey. Reid, T. (2001). News NIS-3 Data. APSAC Advisor, 9 (3): 6-9.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Awe and Awesome

Awe and Awesome Awe and Awesome Awe and Awesome By Maeve Maddox Words, like human bodies, become enfeebled over time. Awe and awesome are two such words. In the early Middle Ages, awe meant â€Å"immediate and active fear; terror, dread.† Because awe was frequently used to describe the fear inspired by the divine, it came to mean, â€Å"dread mingled with veneration.† The adjective awesome was used to describe something that inspired a feeling of solemn and reverential wonder tinged with latent fear, the feeling that Ahab’s crew would have experienced as Moby Dick rose up out of the sea next to the Pequod, or that Moses thrilled to when the voice spoke from the burning bush. In the 21st century, the adjective awesome is applied to just about anything: 10 Unexpectedly Awesome Cover Songs How to Become More of an Awesome Person What Are Some Really Awesome Ways to Use Chocolate Mint? I Had Some Really Awesome Noodles Today Clearly awesome has dwindled so far from its original meaning as to mean nothing at all. Perhaps writers of such statements could pause and try to think of a word that still retains a distinctive meaning: 10 Unexpectedly Catchy Cover Songs How to Become A More Likeable Person What Are Some Really Inventive Ways to Use Chocolate Mint? I Had Some Really Delicious Noodles Today Unlike the adjective awesome, the noun awe continues to mean something. In the expression â€Å"to be in awe of,† awe means â€Å"respectful admiration†: Cricketer in awe of cataract surgeons We are all in awe of the dedication and commitment of our polio eradication colleagues around the world. The expression â€Å"in awe† conveys the experience of an emotion felt at seeing something fearful or sublime in nature: We  watched in awe  as the  Aurora  Borealis danced around us, all alone in the Icelandic Countryside. Photographer Kenneth Watkins watched in awe from just 30 yards away [as two male lions fought for mating rights]. But the expression â€Å"in awe† is also dwindling into meaninglessness: Travellers in awe of new airport [The store clerk] watched in awe as she stacked up an enormous armload of music.   I watched in awe as my friend ate her first push popsicle ever. Finally, there is the military coinage â€Å"shock and awe† in which awe retains the meaning of fear or dread: shock and awe: a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force. Even this fearsome expression is being used in various non-military contexts with descending coherence: If organized labor were to throw its money and numbers behind a shock-and-awe effort to organize fast food workers across the country, they would no doubt emerge immensely strengthened. Greek workers resist shock and awe austerity measures   The Shock and Awe of Ikea’s Employee Spying Program [Employees] meet personal needs by using inappropriate openness to shock and awe co-workers.   What he has done to date has left everybody in shock and awe. This video  left me  in  shock and awe. Kids use the Walkman for the first time and react with  shock and awe.   Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Addressing A Letter to Two PeopleOne Fell Swoop30 Words for Small Amounts

Sunday, February 16, 2020

The incredible trust we put in technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The incredible trust we put in technology - Essay Example In the business world, technology has made work to be both cheaper and easier. This is because there have been innovations that rest the work which was done by human beings to computers. For example, in companies financial accounting and filing was normally done by workers manually. Nowadays there have been computer softwares such as Point of Sale which do a company’s accounting much quicker as every transaction is made. This means that accounting is done on the go. This is very cheap and time saving unlike the past where it took a lot of time and money since manual receipts hard to be filed and a lot of accountants had to be hired. Technology has been used remarkably in the communication sector. Advances in technology have resulted in mediums of communications which are both cheap and fast. A good example is the use of email to communicate. Before, long distance communication used to take a long time since letters were the ones commonly used and delivery could take long. Howe ver, the advancement of technology seen the use of the internet in the communication industry. Technologies such as email have been widely used since it is both fast to communicate using an email and cheap. In fact, it is very rare to find people using the postal office to send letters which might take even a week to reach the intended person. Sending and receiving of emails takes a maximum of five minutes irrespective of the geographical distance that is between the people who are communicating. People have also relied on technology while going about normal day to day activities. For example, people can access books over the internet very easily. This has made life easier especially for students who can access reading materials over the internet. However, scholars are beginning to view technology more of an evil than a good in the society. This is because of the high dependency that human beings have developed for technology. For example, students no longer go to libraries to read books to further their knowledge. This is because of the accessibility of written materials and journals over the internet. However, these journals can be inaccurate since they are not legally published. There are also old literatures that one cannot access over the internet. Social interactions in the society are also diminishing as a result of the dependency of technology. This is due to social sites such as Facebook and Twitter, which have limited physical social interaction in that people use them to communicate and meet people over the internet (Harrington 140). The problem here is that although people are socializing over the internet, this is not as effective as physical socializing since it does not involve the physical contact in physical social interaction. For example, if someone loses a loved one there is a difference in sending them a consolation note and physically going to console them. Physically consoling them is much personal and better. Overdependence of technolog y has also resulted in the society becoming dumber. This is because people often use search engines to find answers to various questions. People refer to articles in the internet if they want to find information rather than do that in books and creditability becomes a matter of contention. For instance, one might Google to find out whether on earth there are extra terrestrial beings. If the first search result is an article that supports